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The following step show a summary of all devices seen by the Linux kernel. Most dedicated servers use SCSI or SATA disk drives, so these devices will be shown as sda with their partitions (sda1, sda2, sda3). If your server has more than one disk drive, verify additional devices such as sdb, sdc, etc. with their appropriate partitions.

[brucelee@ ~]$ ls /dev/ -a
. hvc5 lp3 ram1 rtc tty13 tty3 tty46 tty62 usbdev4.1_ep81 vcsa2
.. hvc6 MAKEDEV ram10 sda tty14 tty30 tty47 tty63 usbdev5.1_ep00 vcsa3
agpgart hvc7 mapper ram11 sda1 tty15 tty31 tty48 tty7 usbdev5.1_ep81 vcsa4
bus initctl mem ram12 sda2 tty16 tty32 tty49 tty8 usbmon0 vcsa5
console input net ram13 sda3 tty17 tty33 tty5 tty9 usbmon1 vcsa6
core kmsg null ram14 sg0 tty18 tty34 tty50 ttyS0 usbmon2 watchdog
disk log nvram ram15 shm tty19 tty35 tty51 ttyS1 usbmon3 X0R
fd loop0 oldmem ram2 snapshot tty2 tty36 tty52 ttyS2 usbmon4 XOR
full loop1 parport0 ram3 stderr tty20 tty37 tty53 ttyS3 usbmon5 zero
fuse loop2 parport1 ram4 stdin tty21 tty38 tty54 .udev vcs
fw0 loop3 parport2 ram5 stdout tty22 tty39 tty55 urandom vcs1
gpmctl loop4 parport3 ram6 systty tty23 tty4 tty56 usbdev1.1_ep00 vcs2
hpet loop5 port ram7 tty tty24 tty40 tty57 usbdev1.1_ep81 vcs3
hvc0 loop6 ppp ram8 tty0 tty25 tty41 tty58 usbdev2.1_ep00 vcs4
hvc1 loop7 ptmx ram9 tty1 tty26 tty42 tty59 usbdev2.1_ep81 vcs5
hvc2 lp0 pts ramdisk tty10 tty27 tty43 tty6 usbdev3.1_ep00 vcs6
hvc3 lp1 ram random tty11 tty28 tty44 tty60 usbdev3.1_ep81 vcsa
hvc4 lp2 ram0 root tty12 tty29 tty45 tty61 usbdev4.1_ep00 vcsa1

Once the name of the disk device is known, you can use the following command fdisk -l to show more details of the disk drive regarding capacity and how the disk partitions are organized. You will need root authority to execute fdisk. The command df -h shows the percentage of disk space usage. You should note that the /boot partition is usually allocated 100 MBs or less. The rest of the disk is available for user data and applications.

[root@]# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 * 1 13 104391 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 14 274 2096482+ 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3 275 14593 115017367+ 83 Linux

[brucelee@ ~]$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3 108G 43G 60G 42% /
/dev/sda1 99M 17M 77M 19% /boot
tmpfs 505M 0 505M 0% /dev/shm

If you need more detailed information on your server hardware configuration, lshw can report exact memory configuration, firmware version, motherboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, bus speed, etc. on DMI-capable x86 or EFI (IA-64) systems and on some PowerPC machines. This detailed information can be output in plain text, XML or HTML. If your server does not yet have this tool installed, on Linux systems that support yum, you can install it using yum while logging in as root. Once the tool is installed, it can generate a detailed report which is similar to what you see below.

[root@]# yum install lshw
[brucelee@ ~]$ lshw | more
description: Computer
width: 32 bits
description: Motherboard
physical id: 0
description: System memory
physical id: 0
size: 1008MB
product: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 CPU 6420 @ 2.13GHz
vendor: Intel Corp.
physical id: 1
bus info: cpu@0
version: 6.15.6
serial: 0000-06F6-0000-0000-0000-0000
size: 2133MHz
capacity: 2133MHz
width: 64 bits

To check the general health of your dedicated server, the Linux command top displays the current cpu and memory usage, and the number of days or hours since the last reboot as following.

[brucelee@ ~]$ top
top - 10:21:23 up 29 days, 2:32, 1 user, load average: 0.19, 0.05, 0.01
Tasks: 120 total, 2 running, 118 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.3%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 1032796k total, 897860k used, 134936k free, 175832k buffers
Swap: 2096472k total, 576k used, 2095896k free, 601428k cached

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